Electric motorcycle manufacturers include Askoll, Čezeta, Mahindra, Zero Motorcycles, Lightning Motorcycle, Zapp Scooters Limited, Energica Motor Company, Johammer, Evoke Motorcycles, Yo, Gogoro, KTM, Okinawa scooters, Ampere Vehicles, Horwin, Artisan Electric, and Super Soco.
- Yamaha plans to enter the market shortly[when?] with at least two models.
- Spanish company Bultaco entered the electric motorcycle market in 2015.
- Harley-Davidson introduced the Harley-Davidson LiveWire its first prototype electric motorcycle in June 2014.
- Z Electric Vehicle is a US-based commercial production supplier of electric scooters for worldwide markets.
- The BMW C evolution electric scooter was released in Germany in May 2014.
- Italian company Askoll, founded in 2014, uses the technology of its parent company Askoll Groupe, which is a global leader in producing electric motors for domestic appliances. The first scooter models were introduced in 2015.
- Honda participated in European lease demonstration and driving tests for its electric scooter in 2012 but has not yet announced its availability for sale.
- Terra Motors, a Japanese electric vehicle maker, will begin selling electric scooters in India by 2015.
- Electro Force Cycles Issaquah, WA Developed and Manufactured in the US.
- Gogoro announced a swappable battery electric scooter at CES 2015.
- KTM produces the all-electric off-road bikes in the Freeride E-series.
- NIU produces electric scooters and was the first Chinese company to start using lithium-ion batteries in its scooters.
- AVERA, an India-based electric scooter manufacturing company, launched the very first model RETROSA.
- Piaggio released an electric Vespa, the Vespa Elettrica, in 2019 with a 2 kW battery and a range of 100 km (62 mi). There will be a hybrid option as well with 200 km. Piaggio started production in September 2018 and it was released at the beginning of 2019.
- Tacita Motorcycles, based in Italy, announced in mid-2019 plans to open a U.S. operation in Miami, Florida. It makes street and off-road bikes, unusual with their 5-speed manual transmission.
- Ather Energy currently produces Ather 450 and 450X for select markets in India. The 450 has been in sale since 2018.
- Bajaj Auto unveiled its first electric scooter on 17-Oct-2019 named Bajaj Chetak. The sale of the scooter is planned to start in January 2020.
- VinFast also produced 7 electric scooters: VinFast Klara A1, A2, S, Ludo, and Impes., VinFast Theon and VinFast Feliz.
- GOTRAX was founded in 2017; GOTRAX headquarters, shipping, and customer service are located in Dallas, US.
- Ola Electric Mobility, a division of Indian ridesharing cabs Ola Cabs plan to produce its own electric scooters.
- Pure EV currently produces Epluto 7G and ETrance Neo high-speed electric scooters for select markets in India from 2015.
Alternative types of batteries are available. Z Electric Vehicle has pioneered the use of a lead/sodium silicate battery (a variation on the classic lead-acid battery invented in 1859, still prevalent in automobiles) that compares favorably with lithium batteries in size, weight, and energy capacity, at considerably less cost.
EGen says its lithium-iron-phosphate batteries are up to two-thirds lighter than lead-acid batteries and offer the best battery performance for electric vehicles.
In 2017, the first vehicle in the US to use the new Lithium Titanium Oxide (LTO) battery non-flammable battery technology is a scooter called The Expresso. This new technology charges a battery in less than 10 minutes and withstands 25,000 charges (the equivalent of 70 years of daily charges). The technology, created by Altairnano, is currently being used in China where over 10,000 urban buses run on these fast charge batteries.
All electric scooters and motorcycles provide for recharging by plugging into ordinary wall outlets, usually taking about eight hours to recharge (i.e., overnight). Some manufacturers have designed, included, or offer as an accessory, the high-power CHAdeMO level 2 charger, which can charge the batteries up to 95% in an hour.
Manufacturers like Zero Motorcycles and recent entrants to the scooter market Gogoro and Unu have designed machines that allow quick battery swapping, for apartment dwellers who do not have a garage outlet, or for an instant recharge on the go.
In the mid-1990s, Personal Electric Transports-Hawaii (formerly Suntera, now P.E.T.) was making a 113 km/h (70 mph) capable 3-wheel enclosed-electric motorcycle called the Sunray – designed by noted solar EV pioneer Jonnathan Tennyson. The Sunray’s battery cartridge was on rollers and slid out of the front of the vehicle so it could be swapped out for a freshly charged battery at a battery-swap station conveniently located along a highway or in a city. P.E.T. also had streamlined 2-wheel seated motor scooters called Caballito’s – designed by Budd Steinhilbur, who was a well-known designer of the Tucker 48 automobile. Budd’s Caballito’s were also adapted for battery-swapping at P.E.T.’s future battery-swap stations. In 2000, P.E.T. added light-electric motorcycle and scooter visionary Todd Bank to their team, and P.E.T. secured major funding from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power to design and prototype the first battery-swap stations for light-electric vehicles and NEV’s. P.E.T. prototypes and designs are now on display at museums across America.
Honda has developed an experimental internal combustion/electric hybrid scooter. Yamaha has also developed a hybrid concept motorcycle called Gen-Ryu. It uses a 600cc engine and an additional electric motor. Hybrid uses a 125cc engine and an additional 2.4 kW motor.
There are several experimental prototypes using fuel cell technology. ENV developed by Intelligent Energy is a hydrogen fuel cell prototype. The motorcycle has a range of 100 miles (160 km) and can reach a top speed of 50 mph (80 km/h). Suzuki has also developed a concept hydrogen fuel cell scooter based on the Suzuki Burgman. Yamaha has created a hydrogen fuel cell prototype called FC-AQEL, which is considered equivalent to a 125cc vehicle. Honda has also developed a hydrogen fuel cell scooter that uses the Honda FC Stack.
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